Al Shahaniya is bordered with the Al Khor municipality to the north, the Umm Salal municipality to the east and Al Rayyan municipality to its south. Formerly, Al Shahaniya was part of the Al Rayyan municipality but was later made independent. It is known for its large plains and sunken land-surfaces. The majority of activity associated with camel racing and oryx breeding in Qatar takes place in Al Shahaniya.
The south of Al Shahaniya is scarce in agricultural land due to harsh dessert conditions and the lack of groundwater. Its largest city is Dukhan, located on the far west coast which is considered the most important western city in Qatar. The industrial city of Umm Bab lies south of Dukhan and is home to the first non-oil related industry, a cement processing facility which began operating more than 50 years ago. Dukhan Road is the main road serving the municipality and is a highway which runs all the way from Dukhan to the capital Doha.
Al Shahaniya City is home to the public defence complex. The Shahaniya Services Centre which manages passports and travel documents and the Shahaniya Civil Defence Centre are located in the city.